Lichens are prominent examples of symbiotic organisms, combining fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria in an intimate biological union. This volume provides an up-to-date account of these fascinating organisms, beginning with anatomical, morphological, and physiological aspects. It emphasizes the ecophysiology of lichens and their role in carbon and nitrogen fixation, as well as in mineral cycling in general. It then provides an overview of lichen biogeography and systematics in the light of modern perspectives in evolution, and summarizes the chemistry of the unique secondary metabolites produced by lichens.
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